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Due to failure to recanalize the lumen during the 4th-5th week of gestation 25-40% of all intestinal atresias; 50% are prematures; obstruction usually distal to the ampulla of Vater; may have other congenital anomalies Hallmark: bilious vomiting without abdominal distention[...]


 Abnormal retrograde movement of gastric contents (reflux, regurgitation, vomiting)  Pain in the chest unrelated to swallowing (“heartburn”)  Pain during swallowing (odynophagia)  Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia)   THE ESOPHAGUS Causes of dysphagia: 1. Incomplete occlusive esophageal obstruction (by[...]


I. DYSPHAGIA – due to a structural defect or motility disorder; most nonstructural causes are due to motility abnormalities of the oropharynx or the esophagus   II. REGURGITATION – effortless movement of stomach contents into the esophagus and mouth  [...]


GI function varies with maturity Swallowing reflex – 12 weeks gestation Nutritive sucking – 34 weeks gestation Coordinated oral & pharyngeal movements – develop within the 1st few months of life in term infants Normal anatomic variants: tongue tie, scrotal[...]


GASTROENTEROLOGY REVIEW Anatomy a. Anterior abdominal wall i. 4 abdominal quadrants formed byTUP (transumbilical plane) and midsagittal plane – RUQ, RLQ, LUQ, and LLQ. ii. 9 abdominal regions formed by TPP (transpyloric plane), TTP (transtubercular plane), and midclavicular planes, of[...]

Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally attacks synovial joints. The process produces an inflammatory response of the synovium (synovitis) secondary to hyperplasia of synovial cells, excess synovial fluid, and the development of pannus in the synovium. The[...]

What is a Rheumatologist?

A rheumatologist is a physician specialized in the field of medical sub-specialty called rheumatology, and holds either a board certification after specialized training after Doctor of Medicine Degree (M.D. or D.O.) through fellowship programs in the United States, or specialist registrar positions in the[...]

Urology Subdisciplines

Subdisciplines As a discipline that involves the study of many organs and physiological systems, urology can be broken down into subdisciplines. At larger centers and especially university hospitals, many urologists specialize within a particular subdiscipline of urology. [edit]Endourology Endourology is[...]


Urology (from Greek οὖρον – oûron, “urine” and -λογία, -logia “study of”) is the medical and surgical specialty that focuses on the urinary tracts of males and females, and on the reproductive system of males. Medical professionals specializing in the field of urology are[...]

Respiratory Medicine

Respiratory Medicine

The respiratory system is the anatomical system of an organism that introduces respiratory gases to the interior and performs gas exchange. In humans and other mammals, the anatomical features of the respiratory system include airways, lungs, and the respiratory muscles. Molecules of oxygen and carbon dioxide are passively[...]


Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the study and treatment of mental disorders. These mental disorders include various affective, behavioural, cognitive and perceptual abnormalities. The term was first coined by the German physician Johann Christian Reil in 1808, and literally means the ‘medical treatment of the mind’ (psych-:[...]

Plastic Surgery

Reconstructive surgery techniques were being carried out in India by 800 BC.[2] Sushruta, the father of Surgery,[3] made important contributions to the field of plastic and cataract surgery in 6th century BC.[3] The medical works of both Sushruta and Charak originally in Sanskrit[...]


Pediatrics or paediatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. A medical practitioner who specializes in this area is known as a pediatrician or paediatrician. The word pediatrics and its cognates mean healer of children; they derive from two Greek words: παῖς (pais =[...]


Otolaryngology or ENT (ear, nose and throat) is the branch of medicine and surgery that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, throat, and head and neck disorders. The full name of the specialty is otorhinolaryngology[1]; The full term otorhinolaryngology (neoclassical Greek and modern Greek: ὠτο(ρ)ρινολαρυγγολογία),[...]

Orthopedic surgery

Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics (also spelled orthopaedic surgery and orthopaedics inCommonwealth countries and Ireland) is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. Orthopedic surgeons use both surgical and nonsurgical means to treat musculoskeletal trauma, sports injuries, degenerative diseases, infections,tumors, and congenital disorders. Nicholas Andry coined the word[...]


Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine which deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye problems. Since ophthalmologists perform operations on eyes, they are considered to be both surgical and medical specialists.[...]


Oncology (from the Ancient Greek onkos (ὄγκος), meaning bulk, mass, or tumor, and the suffix-logy (-λογία), meaning “study of”) is a branch of medicine that deals with tumors (cancer). A medical professional who practices oncology is an oncologist. Oncology is concerned with: The diagnosis[...]


Obstetrics (from the Latin obstare, “to stand by”) is the medical specialty dealing with the care of all women’s reproductive tracts and their children during pregnancy (prenatal period), childbirthand the postnatal period. Midwifery deals only with minimal risk women and pregnancy.Veterinary obstetrics is the same[...]


Neurology (from Greek νεῦρον, neuron, “nerve”; and -λογία, ‘-logia’, ‘”study of”) is a medical specialty dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Specifically, it deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of disease involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, including their coverings, blood vessels,[...]


Nephrology (from Greek νεφρός – nephros, “kidney”, combined with the suffix -logy, “the study of”) is a branch of internal medicine and pediatrics dealing with the study of the function and diseases of the kidney Scope of the specialty Nephrology concerns the diagnosis and[...]

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