Singapore magazine | Health | Beauty | medical | Female | men | wellness | Article | News

Collagen Remedy

It is widely used in skin, bone, and other tissue regeneration

28746769_xlCollagen is the most abundant protein found in mammals, including us, humans. It makes up 25% to 35% of the protein in our bodies, and it is not just found in the skin. Collagen is found in tendons, ligaments, cartilage, muscles, bones, blood vessels, the gut, the intervertebral discs. There’s quite a lot of it in our corneas and, of course, in the skin.

The name collagen comes from the Greek word ‘kolla’, meaning glue, and the suffix ‘-gen’, which denotes producing. This is appropriate as collagen literally holds cells together and connects different parts of the body. Of course, the ancient Greeks didn’t know that. They knew collagen as glue derived from boiling the skin and sinews of animals until they broke down into a sticky goo. Collagen adhesives were being used by our hunter gatherer ancestors at least 8,000 years ago and are still preferred today over modern synthetic plastic adhesives for making the best quality guitars and violins.

Medical Uses for Collagen

Collagen has a very strong molecule with a triple helical structure which prevents it from being broken down by enzymes and allows other cells to adhere to it. For this reason and for its pore structure, permeability, and hydrophilicity, it makes an ideal extracellular matrix or scaffold. It is widely used in skin, bone, and other tissue regeneration.

It is used as a natural wound dressing because it is resistant against bacteria, helps to keep the wound sterile because of its natural ability to fight infection, and forms a matrix to guide and attract the body’s own cells to heal the wound.

Both human and bovine collagen have been used as dermal fillers for treatment of wrinkles and skin ageing, although hyaluronic acid (AH) fillers like Restylane are more often used now.

Oral Collagen Supplements and Topical Collagen Creams

In recent years, numerous collagen supplements have appeared on the market claiming to relieve the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, usually with hydrolysed type II collagen and often mixed with chondroitin sulphate, and sometimes hyaluronic acid. Type II collagen is the kind found in the articular cartilage and hyaline cartilage that coats the surfaces of our joints to protect the bones from wear. So the theory goes that taking it as an oral supplement may help protect joint surfaces.

However, there have yet to be any large scale, independent studies to support this, and many doctors and scientists remain sceptical. Like all proteins collagen is broken down into amino acids before absorption by the body, so there is no reason why orally ingested collagen should affect connective tissue in the body.

The same question of efficacy applies to oral collagen supplements that claim to stimulate collagen production in the skin. There is also a lack of scientific evidence for the claimed anti-ageing effects of the many creams, lotions, or other beauty products containing collagen.

Collagen and the Skin18557598_xl

The skin is made up of three basic layers: the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous tissue. Each layer has its own internal subdivisions. Collagen and keratin within those layers give the skin its strength, waterproofing, and elasticity.

The epidermis is the outermost layer composed mainly of keratinocyte. It has five layers: the top one, the stratum corneum, is made of dead skin cells that shed about every two weeks. The epidermis regulates water loss, determines our skin colour and contains immune cells, and touch receptors. The deepest layer of the skin is the subcutaneous tissue, a layer of fat and connective tissue that houses larger blood vessels and nerves. This layer is important in the regulation of the body’s temperature. In the middle is the dermis, by far the thickest skin layer, composed of the papillary and reticular layers. The papillary is composed of fine and loosely arranged collagen fibres, while the reticular layer is thicker and made of thick collagen fibres that are arranged parallel to the surface of the skin. It is this layer that gives our skin its elasticity. As we age the production of collagen slows and eventually halts. We lose collagen and our skin loses its elasticity and starts to wrinkle. As we grow older, we start to lose some of the subcutaneous tissue in the face and even more collagen, our wrinkles become deeper, and eventually our skin begins to sag from lack of structural support.

Luckily there are some things we can do to encourage our skin to produce more collagen and delay unwanted signs of ageing.

The Dos and Don’ts for Battling Wrinkles

Before we start doing things to protect and improve our skin, we should stop doing things which are harmful to our skin.

Don’ts

Don’t smoke. Quit smoking for your general health and your skin’s sake. Smoking both contributes to collagen degradation and reduces the skin’s ability to make new collagen.

Don’t go out without sunscreen. The sun’s ultraviolet radiation penetrates the skin’s surface to the dermis layer and causes collagen to weaken and break down at a higher and faster rate than natural ageing. It can also cause abnormalities and malfunctions in skin cells, so collagen cells become unable to regenerate themselves, and the skin becomes even more vulnerable to sun damage. Use at least a SPF 30 UVA and B sunscreen daily.

Dos

Get plenty of sleep. Lack of sleep causes the body to produce more cortisol, a stress hormone that can break down skin cells. However, when you get enough sleep, the body produces more human growth hormone, which keeps skin from thinning, and therefore makes it less likely to wrinkle.

Eat colourful food. Eat plenty of dark green, leafy vegetables, as well as red, orange, and blue fruits and vegetables. Cabbage, kailan, kale, etc. are loaded with lutein, an antioxidant that helps improve skin elasticity. Red, orange, and blue fruits and vegetables contain antioxidants that increase collagen as does the vitamin C in citrus fruits. Prunes and blueberries also contain high levels of antioxidants.

Apply a topical antioxidant. There is strong evidence that a good topical antioxidant, such as those containing vitamins C and idebenone, reduce the harmful effects of the ultraviolet rays that manage to get through your sunscreen.

Try retinoids. They’re a class of chemical compounds that are related to vitamin A. Our skin seems to love retinoids. They help to diminish fine lines and age spots and promote collagen production. There is probably more evidence that they are effective at reducing signs of ageing than any other type of anti-ageing creams.

Try dimethylaminoethanol (DMAE). Some people have side effects of dryness and redness with retinoid-based products and find that DMAE offers them the same reduction of fine lines and improved overall appearance of ageing skin without the side effects of retinoids.

Aesthetic Skin Rejuvenation and Tightening Devices16784071_xl

There are several different kinds of devices that can help stimulate collagen production and thus reduce fine lines and wrinkles and tighten the skin. They do this by inducing controlled thermal injury to the deep dermis, which stimulates collagenases, the production of new collagen. This can be done with lasers or with radio frequency (RF) technology.

Lasers

Lasers like the Mixto, a fractional CO2 laser system, use a high-speed scanner to deliver a precise matrix of Microspots that penetrate to the dermis, causing an immediate reaction that leads to collagen remodelling and new collagen formation. This technique makes the healing process much quicker than ablative lasers and enables patients to get back to their normal lives sooner, but there is still redness of the skin for a couple of days and maybe some peeling after that.

Patients experience a sensation of heat on the surface of the skin, but a topical anaesthetic cream is applied to the face before treatment to manage this. On the plus side, the Mixto also treats surface blemishes, minor pigmentation problems, and minimise pores all in the same treatment. Two or three treatments a month apart may be required to achieve the maximum effect.

Revlite laser

Revlite laser belongs to another class of laser, which not only remove the signs of sun damage, like pigmentation and fine wrinkles, but also stimulate the development of collagen resulting in firmer skin. A beam of light passes through the upper layers of the skin, and the heat delivered is absorbed by pigment cells, thus eliminating skin pigmentation. The heat also stimulates the development of collagen and minimises pores.

Radiofrequency (RF) treatments

While radiofrequency uses a different technology and delivers a different kind of energy to stimulate the collagen cells, the process is basically the same. The RF energy heats up the cells enough to cause remodelling of existing cells and the formation of new collagen cells. Depending on the setting, radiofrequency can also remodel and reduce unwanted fat so it works well for areas like eye bags and jowls because it can reduce the fatty deposits and stimulate collagen to tighten the skin with the same treatment.

Radiofrequency stimulates the fat cell to emulsify (liquefy) the fat within the cell. Then the liquefied fat moves from inside the cell through a temporary pore formed in the cell membrane to outside where it is absorbed by the lymphatic system which excretes it as normal bodily waste. Usually four to six treatments are required to achieve the desired result.

Share
author
Dr Lynn Chiam is a Dermatologist at Children and Adult Skin Hair Laser Clinic, Mount Elizabeth Novena Specialist Medical Centre, Singapore.
Posted by ezyhealth on Jul 8 2014. Filed under Aesthetics. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0. Both comments and pings are currently closed.

Copyright © 2018 All rights reserved.Reproduction or redistribution of any content and images, is prohibited without the prior written consent of Ezyhealth Media Pte Ltd.
Health Magazine | Doctor Magazine | Medical Magazine | Beauty Magazine | Magazine Promotion
php developer india